Part ⅠListening Comprehension(40min)
In Sections A, B and C you will hear everything ONCE ONLY. Listen carefully and then answer the questions that follow. Mark the correct answer to each question on your COLORED ANSWER SHEET.?
SECTION A TALK?
Questions 1 to 5 refer to the talk in this section. At the end of the talk you will be given 15 seconds to answer each of the following five questions. Now listen to the talk. ?
1. Which of the following statements about offices is NOT true according to the talk?
A.Offices throughout the world are basically alike.?
B.There are primarily two kinds of office layout.?
C.Office surroundings used to depend on company size.?
D.Office atmosphere influences workers’ performance.?
2. We can infer from the talk that harmonious work relations may have a direct impact on your ____.?
A.promotion B.colleagues C.management D.union ?
3. Supposing you were working in a small firm, which of the following would you do when you had some grievances??
A.Request a formal special meeting with the boss.?
B.Draft a formal agenda for a special meeting.?
C.Contact a consultative committee first.?
D.Ask to see the boss for a talk immediately. ?
4. According to the talk, the union plays the following roles EXCPET ____.?
A.mediation B.arbitration C.negotiation D.representation ?
5. Which topic is NOT covered in the talk??
A.Role of the union. B.Work relations.?
C.Company structure. D.Office layout. ??
SECTION B INTERVIEW
Questions 6 to 10 are based on an interview. At the end of the interview you will be given 15 seconds to answer each of the following five questions. Now listen to the interview.?
6. Which of the following satements is INCORRECT about David’s personal background?
A.He had excellent academic records at school and university.?
B.He was once on a PhD programme at Yale University.?
C.He received professional training in acting.?
D.He came from a single-parent family. ?
7. David is inclined to believe in ____.?
C.the TV character D.government conspiracies ?
8. David thinks he is fit for the TV role because of his ____.?
A.professional training B.personality?
C.life experience D.appearance ?
9. From the interview, we know that at present David feels ____.?
A.a sense of frustration B.haunted by the unknown things?
C.confident but moody D.successful yet unsatisfied ?
10. How does David feel about the divorce of his parents??
A.He feels a sense of anger. B.He has a sense of sadness.?
C.It helped him grow up. D.It left no effect on him. ??
SECTION C NEWS BROADCAST
Question 11 is based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 15 seconds to answer the question. Now listen to the news.?
11. What is the main idea of the news item??
A.US concern over the forthcoming peace talks.?
B.Peace efforts by the Palestinian Authority.?
C.Recommendations by the Mitchell Commission.?
D.Bomb attacks aimed at Israeli civilians. ??
Question 12 is based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 15 seconds to answer the question. Now listen to the news.?
12. Some voters will waste their ballots because ____.?
A.they like neither candidate
B.they are all ill-informed?
C.the candidates do not differ much
D.they do not want to vote twice ??
Questions 13 to 15 are based on the following news. At the end of the news item, you will be given 15 seconds to answer each of the questions. Now listen to the news.?
13. According to the UN Human Development Report, which is the best place for women in the world??
A.Canada. B.The US. C.Australia. D.Scandinavia. ?
14. ____ is in the 12th place in overall ranking.?
A.Britain B.France C.Finland D.Switzerland ?
15. According to the UN report, the least developed country is ____.?
A.Ethiopia B.Mali C.Sierra Leon D.Central African Republic ??
SECTION D NOTE-TAKING AND GAP-FILLING
In this section you will hear a mini-lecture. You will hear the lecture ONCE ONLY. While listening, take notes on the important points.?
Fill in each of the gaps with ONE word. You may refer to your notes. Make sure the word you fill in is both grammatically and semantically acceptable.?
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs ?
Abraham Maslow has developed a famous theory of human needs, which can be arranged in order of importance.?
Physiological needs: the most (1)____ ones for survival. They include such needs as food, water, etc. And there is usually one way to satisfy these needs.?
(2)____ needs: needs for 〖ZK(〗a)physical security;?
b) (3)____ security. 〖ZK)〗?
The former means no illness or injury, while the latter is concerned with freedom from (4)____, misfortunes, etc. These needs can be met through a variety of means, e.g. job security, (5)____ plans, and safe working conditions.?
Social needs: human requirements for 〖ZK(〗a) love and affection;?
b) a sense of belonging.〖ZK)〗?
There are two ways to satisfy these needs: 〖ZK(〗a) 〖ZK(〗formation of relationships at workplace;〖ZK)〗?
b) 〖ZK(〗formation of relationships outside workplace.〖ZK)〗〖ZK)〗?
Esteem needs: 〖ZK(〗a) self-esteem, i.e. one’s sense of achievement;?
b) 〖ZK(〗esteem of others, i.e. others’ respect as a result of one’s (6)____.〖ZK)〗〖ZK)〗?
There needs can be fulfilled by achievement, promotion, honours, etc.?
Self-realization needs: need to realize one’s potential. Ways to realize these needs are individually (7)____.?
Features of the hierarchy of needs: 〖ZK(〗a) 〖ZK(〗Social, esteem and self-realization needs are exclusively ?
b) 〖ZK(#〗Nesds are satisfied in a fixed order from the bottom up.?
c) (9)____ for needs comes from the lowest un-met level.?
d) Different levels of needs may (10)____ when they comes into play. 〖ZK)〗?
Proofreading and Error Correction (15 min)
The passage contains TEN errors. Each indicated line contains a maximum of ONE error. In each case, only ONE word is involved. You should proofread the passage and correct it in the following way:?
For a worng word, underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank provided at the end of the line.?
For a missing word, mark the position of the missing word with a “∧” sign and write the word you believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end of the line.?
For an unnecessary word, cross the unnecessary word with a slash “/”and put the word in the blank provided at the end of the line. ??
When ∧ art museum wants a new exhibit, [JY](1)[ZZ(Z]an[ZZ)]?
it never buys things in finished form and hangs [JY](2)[ZZ(Z]never[ZZ)]?
them on the wall. When a natural history museum?
wants an [ZZ(Z]exhibition[ZZ)], it must often build it. [JY](3)[ZZ(Z]exhibit[ZZ)]〖FK)〗〖CSD〗〖CSX〗?
Demographic indicators show that Americans in the postwar period were more eager than over to establish families. They quickly?
brought down the age at marriage for both men and women and?
brought the birth rate to a twentieth century height after more than [JY](1)____?
a hundred years of a steady decline, producing the “baby boom”. [JY](2)____?
There young adults established a trend of early marriage and relatively?
large families that went for more than two decades and caused a major but [JY](3)____?
temporary reversal of long-term demographic patterns. From the 1940s?
through the early 1960s, Americans married at a high rate and at a [JY](4)____?
younger age than their Europe counterparts. [JY](5)____?
Less noted but equally more significant, the man and women [JY](6)____?
who formed families between 1940 and 1960 nevertheless reduced [JY](7)____?
the divorce rate after a postwar peak; their marriages remained intact?
to a greater extent than did that of couples who married in earlier [JY](8)____?
as well as later decades. Since the United States maintained its [JY](9)____?
dubious distinction of having the highest divorce rate in the world,?
the temporary decline in divorce did not occur in the same extent in [JY](10)____?
Europe. Contrary to fears of the experts, the role of breadwinner?
and homemaker was not abandoned.??
Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension (40 min)
SECTION A READING COMPREHENSION (30 min)?
In this section there are four reading passages followed by a total of fifteen multiple-choice questions. Read the passages and then mark your answers on your COLORED ANSWER SHEET.??
Hostility to Gypsies has existed almost from the time they first appeared in Europe in the 14th century. The origins of the Gypsies, with little written history, were shrouded in mystery. What is known now from clues in the various dialects of their language, Romany, is that they came from northern India to the Middle East a thousand years ago, working as minstrels and mercenaries, metalsmiths and servants. Europeans misnamed them Egyptians, soon shortened to Gypsies. A clan system, based mostly on their traditional crafts and geography, has made them a deeply fragmented and fractious people, only really unifying in the face of enmity from non-Gypsies, whom they call gadje. Today many Gypsy activists prefer to be called Roma, which comes from the Romany word for “man”. But on my travels among them most still referred to themselves as Gypsies.?
In Europe their persecution by the gadje began quickly, with the church seeing heresy in their fortune-telling and the state seeing anti-social behaviour in their nomadism. At various times they have been forbidden to wear their distinctive bright clothes, to speak their own language, to travel, to marry one another, or to ply their traditional crafts. In some countries they were reduced to slavery—it wasn’t until the mid-1800s that Gypsy slaves were freed in Romania. In more recent times the Gypsies were caught up in Nazi ethnic hysteria, and perhaps half a million perished in the Holocaust. Their horses have been shot and the wheels removed from their wagons, their names have been changed, their women have been sterilized, and their children have been forcibly given for adoption to non-Gypsy families.?
But the Gypsies have confounded predictions of their disappearance as a distinct ethnic group, and their numbers have burgeoned. Today there are an estimated 8 to 12 million Gypsies scattered across Europe, making them the continent’s largest minority. The exact number is hard to pin down. Gypsies have regularly been undercounted, both by regimes anxious to downplay their profile and by Gypsies themselves, seeking to avoid bureaucracies. Attempting to remedy past inequities, activist groups may overcount. Hundreds of thousands more have emigrated to the Americans and elsewhere. With very few exceptions Gypsies have expressed no great desire for a country to call their own—unlike the Jews, to whom the Gypsy experience is often compared. “Romanestan,”said Ronald Lee, the Canadian Gypsy writer, “is where my two feet stand.”?
16. Gypsies are united only when they ____.?
A.are engaged in traditional crafts
B.call themselves Roma?
C.live under a clan system
D.face external threats ?
17. In history hostility to Gypsies in Europe resulted in their persecution by all the following EXCEPT ____.?
A.the Egyptians B.the state?
C.the church D.the Nazis ?
18. According to the passage, the main difference between the Gypsies and the Jews lies in their concepts of ____.?
A.language B.culture C.identity D.custom ??
I was just a boy when my father brought me to Harlem for the first time, almost 50 years ago. We stayed at the Hotel Theresa, a grand brick structure at 125th Street and Seventh Avenus. Once, in the hotel restaurant, my father pointed out Joe Louis. He even got Mr. Brown, the hotel manager, to introduce me to him, a bit paunchy but still the champ as far as I was concerned.?
Much has changed since then. Business and real estate are booming. Some say a new renaissance is under way. Others decry what they see as outside forces running roughshod over the old Harlem.?
New York meant Harlem to me, and as a young man I visited it whenever I could. But many of my old haunts are gone. The Theresa shut down in 1966. National chains that once ignored Harlem now anticipate yuppie money and want pieces of this prime Manhattan real estate. So here I am on a hot August afternoon, sitting in a Starbucks that two years ago opened a block away from the Theresa, snatching at memories between sips of high-priced coffee. I am about to open up a piece of the old Harlem—the New York Amsterdam News—when a tourist asking directions to Sylvia’s, a prominent Harlem restaurant, penetrates my daydreaming. He’s carrying a book: ?Touring Historic Harlem.??
History. I miss Mr. Michaux’s bookstore, his House of Common Sense, which was across from the Theresa. He had a big billboard out front with brown and black faces painted on it that said in large letters:“World History Book Outlet on 2 000 000 000 Africans and Nonwhite Peoples.”An ugly state office building has swallowed that space.?
I miss speaker like Carlos Cooks, who was always on the southwest corner of 125th and Seventh, urging listeners to support Africa. Harlem’s powerful political electricity seems unplugged—although the streets are still energized, especially by West African immigrants.?
Hardworking southern newcomers formed the bulk of the community back in the 1920s and ’30s, when Harlem renaissance artists, writers, and intellectuals gave it a glitter and renown that made it the capital of black America. From Harlem, W. E. B. Dubois, Langston Hughes, Paul Robeson, Zora Hurston, and others helped power America’s cultural influence around the world.?
By the 1970s and ’80s drugs and crime had ravaged parts of the community. And the life expectancy for men in Harlem was less than that of men in Bangladesh. Harlem had become a symbol of the dangers of inner-city life.?
Now, you want to shout “Lookin’ good!”at this place that has been neglected for so long. Crowds push into Harlem USA, a new shopping centre on 125th, where a Disney store shares space with HMV Records, the New York Sports Club, and a nine-screen Magic Johnson theatre complex. Nearb, a Rite Aid drugstore also opened. Maybe part of the reason Harlem seems to be undergoing a rebirth is that it is finally getting what most people take for granted.?
Harlem is also part of an “empowerment zone”—a federal designation aimed at fostering economic growth that will bring over half a billion in federal, state, and local dollars. Just the shells of once elegant old brownstones now can cost several hundred thousand dollars. Rents are skyrocketing. An improved economy, tougher law enforcement, and community efforts against drugs have contributed to a 60 percent drop in crime since 1993.?
19. At the beginning the author seems to indicate that Harlem ____.?
A.has remained unchanged all these years?
B.has undergone drastic changes?
C.has become the capital of Black America?
D.has remained a symbol of dangers of inner-city life ?
20. When the author recalls Harlem in the old days, he has a feeling of ____.?
A.indifference B.discomfort C.delight D.nostalgia ?
21. Harlem was called the capital of Black America in the 1920s and ’30s mainly because of its ____.?
A.art and culture B.immigrant population?
C.political enthusiasm D.distinctive architecture ?
22. From the passage we can infer that, generally speaking, the author ____.?
A.has strong reservations about the changes
B.has slight reservations about the changes?
C.welcomes the changes in Harlem
D.is completely opposed to the changes ??
The senior partner, Oliver Lambert, studied the resume for the hundredth time and again found nothing he disliked about Mitchell Y. McDeere, at least not on paper. He had the brains, the ambition, the good looks. And he was hungry; with his background, he had to be. He was married, and that was mandatory. The firm had never hired an unmarried lawyer, and it frowned heavily on divorce, as well as womanizing and drinking. Drug testing was in the contract. He had a degree in accounting, passed the CPA exam the first time he took it and wanted to be a tax lawyer, which of course was a requirement with a tax firm. He was white, and the firm had never hired a black. They managed this by being secretive and clubbish and never soliciting job applications. Other firms solicited, and hired blacks. This firm recruited, and remained lily white. Plus, the firm was in Memphis, and the top blacks wanted New York or Washington or Chicago. McDeere was a male, and there were no women in the firm. That mistake had been made in the mid-seventies when they recruited the number one grad from Harvard, who happened to be a she and a wizard at taxation. She lasted four turbulent years and was killed in a car wreck.?
He looked good, on paper. He was their top choice. In fact, for this year there were no other prospects. The list was very short. It was McDeere, or no one.?
The managing partner, Royce McKnight, studied a dossier labeled “Mitchell Y. McDeere—Harvard.”An inch thick with small print and a few photographs; it had been prepared by some exCIA agents in a private intelligence outfit in Bethesda. They were clients of the firm and each year did the investigating for no fee. It was easy work, they said, checking out unsuspecting law students. They learned, for instance, that he preferred to leave the Northeast, that he was holding three job offers, two in New York and one in Chicago, and that the highest offer was $ 76 000 and the lowest was $ 68 000. He was in demand. He had been given the opportunity to cheat on a securities exam during his second year. He declined, and made the highest grade in the class. Two months ago he had been offered cocaine at a law school party. He said no and left when everyone began snorting. He drank an occasional beer, but drinking was expensive and he had no money. He owed close to $ 23 000 in student loans. He was hungry.?
Royce McKnight flipped through the dossier and smiled. McDeere was their man.?
Lamar Quin was thirty-two and not yet a partner. He had been brought along to look young and act young and project a youthful image for Bendini, Lambert & Locke, which in fact was a young firm, since most of the partners retired in their late forties or early fifties with money to burn. He would make partner in this firm. With a six-figure income guaranteed for the rest of his life, Lamar could enjoy the twelve-hundred-dollar tailored suits that hung so comfortably from his tall, athletic frame. He strolled nonchalantly across the thousand?dollar?a?day suite and poured another cup of decaf. He checked his watch. He glanced at the two partners sitting at the small conference table near the windows.?
Precisely at two-thirty someone knocked on the door. Lamar looked at the partners, who slid the resume and dossier into an open briefcase. All three reached for their jackets. Lamar buttoned his top button and opened the door.?
23. Which of the following is NOT the firm’s recruitment requirement??
A.Marriage. B.Background. C.Relevant degree. D.Male. ?
24. The details of the private investigation show that the firm ____.?
A.was interested in his family background?
B.intended to check out his other job offers?
C.wanted to know something about his preference?
D.was interested in any personal detail of the man ?
25. According to the passage, the main reason Lama Quin was there at the interview was that ____.?
A.his image could help impress McDeere?
B.he would soon become a partner himself?
C.he was good at interviewing applicants?
D.his background was similar to McDeere’s ?
26. We get the impression from the passage that in job recruitment the firm was NOT ____.?
A.selective B.secretive C.perfunctory D.racially biased ??
Harry Truman didn’t think his successor had the right training to be president. “Poor Ike—it won’t be a bit like the Army,”he said. “He’ll sit there all day saying ‘do this, do that,’and nothing will happen.”Truman was wrong about Ike. Dwight Eisenhower had led a fractious alliance—you didn’t tell Winston Churchill what to do—in a massive, chaotic war. He was used to politics. But Truman’s insight could well be applied to another, even more venerated Washington figure: the CEO-turned cabinet secretary.?
A 20-year bull market has convinced us all that CEOs are geniuses, so watch with astonishment the troubles of Donald Rumsfeld and Paul O’ Neill. Here are two highly regarded businessmen, obviously intelligent and well-informed, foundering in their jobs.?
Actually, we shouldn’t be surprised. Rumsfeld and O’ Neill are not doing badly despite having been successful CEOs but because of it. The record of senior businessmen in government is one of almost unrelieved disappointment. In fact, with the exception of Robert Rubin, it is difficult to think of a CEO who had a successful career in government.?
Why is this? Well, first the CEO has to recognize that he is no longer the CEO. He is at best an adviser to the CEO, the president. But even the president is not really the CEO. No one is. Power in a corporation is concentrated and vertically structured. Power in Washington is diffuse and horizontally spread out. The secretary might think he’s in charge of his agency. But the chairman of the congressional committee funding that agency feels the same. In his famous study “Presidential Power and the Modern Presidents,”Richard Neustadt explains how little power the president actually has and concludes that the only lasting presidential power is “the power to persuade.”?
Take Rumseld’s attempt to transform the cold-war military into one geared for the future. It’s innovative but deeply threatening to almost everyone in Washington. The Defense secretary did not try to sell it to the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Congress, the budget office of the White House. As a result, the idea is collapsing.?
Second, what power you have, you must use carefully. For example, O’ Neill’s position as Treasury secretary is one with little formal authority. Unlike Finance ministers around the world, Treasury does not control the budget. But it has symbolic power. The secretary is seen as the chief economic spokesman for the administration and, if he plays it right, the chief economic adviser for the president.?
O’ Neill has been publicly critical of the IMF’s bailout packages for developing countries while at the same time approving such packages for Turkey, Argentina and Brazil. As a result, he has gotten the worst of both worlds. The bailouts continue, but their effect in holstering investor confidence is limited because the markets are rattled by his skepticism.?
Perhaps the government doesn’t do bailouts well. But that leads to a third rule: you can’t just quit. Jack Welch’s famous law for re-engineering General Electric was to be first or second in any given product category, or else get out of that business. But if the government isn’t doing a particular job at peak level, it doesn’t always have the option of relieving itself of that function. The Pentagon probably wastes a lot of money. But it can’t get out of the national-security business.?
The key to former Treasury secretary Rubin’s success may have been that he fully understood that business and government are, in his words, “necessarily and properly very different.”In a recent speech he explained, “Business functions around one predominate organizing principle, profitability ... Government, on the other hand, deals with a vast number of equally legitimate and often potentially competing objectives—for example, energy production versus environmental protection, or safety regulations versus productivity.”?
Rubin’s example shows that talented people can do well in government if they are willing to treat it as its own separate, serious endeavour. But having been bathed in a culture of adoration and flattery, it’s difficult for a CEO to believe he needs to listen and learn, particularly from those despised and poorly paid specimens, politicians, bureaucrats and the media. And even if he knows it intellectually, he just can’t live with it.?
27. For a CEO to be successful in government, he has to ____.?
A.regard the president as the CEO?
B.take absolute control of his department?
C.exercise more power than the congressional committee?
D.become acquainted with its power structure ?
28. In commenting on O’ Neill’s record as Treasury Secretary, the passage seems to indicate that ____.?
A.O’ Neill has failed to use his power well?
B.O’ Neill policies were well received?
C.O’ Neill has been consistent in his policies?
D.O’ Neill uncertain about the package he’s approved ?
29. According to the passage, the differences between government and business lie in the following areas EXCEPT ____.?
A.nature of activity B.optin of withdrawal?
C.legitimacy of activity D.power distribution ?
30. The author seems to suggest that CEO-turned government officials ____.?
A.are able to fit into their new roles?
B.are unlikely to adapt to their new roles?
C.can respond to new situations intelligently?
D.may feel uncertain in their new posts ??
SECTION B SKIMMING AND SCANNING (10 min)?
In this section there are seven passages with ten multiple-choice questions. Skim or scan them as required and then mark your answers on COLORED ANSWER SHEET.??
First read the question. ?
31. The passage is mainly concerned with ____ in the U.S.A.?
A.traveling B.big cities C.cybercafes D .inventions ?
Now go through TEXT E quickly to answer question 31. ??
Planning to answer your e-mail while on holiday in New York? That may not be easy. The Internet may have been invented in the United States, but America is one of the least likely places where a traveller might find an Internet cafe. “Every major city in the world has more cybercafes than New York,”says Joie Kelly, who runs CyberCafeGuide.com. The numbers seem to bear her out: according to various directories, London has more than 30, Paris 19, Istanbul 17, but New York has only 8. Other U.S. cities fare just as poorly: Los Angeles has about 11, Chicago has 4. “Here it’s quite hard work to find a cafe. I was surprised,”says Michael Robson, a sportswriter from York, England, who was visibly relieved to be checking his e-mail at CyberCafe near New York’s Times Square.?
Why the lack of places to plug in? Americans enjoy one of the highest rates of Internet access from work and home in the world, and they’ve never really taken to cafes. About 80 percent of CyberCafe’s clients, for instance, are tourists from overseas. Greek tycoon Stelios HajiIoannou also thinks high prices drive away locals. Last November he oppened a branch of his Internet-cafe chain easyEverything in Times Square. With 800 terminals, it’s the largest Net cafe in the world. While the typical American cafe charges $ 8 to $ 12 an hour, easyEverything charges $ 1 to 4. Marketing manager Stephaine Engelsen says half the cafe’s customers are locals. “We get policemen, firemen, nurses who don’t work at desks with computers, actors between auditions.”easyEverything is now planning to open new locations in Harlem, and possibly SoHo. Unless there’s some cultural shift afoot, however, New York will continue to lag behind metropolises from Mexico City to Moscow.??
First read the question. ?
32. In the passage below the author primarily attempts to ____.?
A.criticize yogis in the West B.define what yoag is?
C.teach yoga postures D.experiment with yoga ?
Now go through TEXT F quickly to answer question 32. ??
Most of the so-called yogis in the West seem to focus on figure correction, not true awareness. They make statements about yoga being for the body, mind and soul. But this is just semantics. Asanas (postures), which get such huge play in the West, are the smallest aspect of yoga. Either you practice yoga as a whole or you don’t. If one is practicing just for health, better to take up walking. Need to cure a disease? See a doctor. Yoga is not about fancy asanas or breath control. Nor is it a therapy or a philosophy. Yoga is about inside awareness. It is the process of union of the self with the whole. Yoga is becoming the Buddha.?
Yogis are experimentalists. In the West, scientists research mainly external phenomena. Yogis focus on the inside. They know that the external world is maya (illusionary) and everything inside is sathya (truth). In maya everything goes, but if you know yourself nothing goes. The West tends to practice only what we call cultural asanas that focus on the external. We don’t practice asanas just to become fit. Indian yogis have discovered 8.4 million such postures. It is essential to train our bodies to find the most comfortable pose that we can sit in for hours. Beyond that there is no role for physical yoga.?
Basically yoga is made up of two parts: ?bahirang? (external yoga) and ?antarang? (internal yoga). The West practices only the former. It needs to enter into ?antarang? yoga. After that begins the trip to the unknown where the master makes the student gradually aware at every stage, where you know that you are not the body or the mind and not even the soul. That is when you get the first taste of ?moksha?, or enlightenment. It is the sense of the opening of the silence, the sense where you lose yourself and are happy doing it, where for the first time your ego has merged with the superconsciousness. You feel you no longer exist, for you have walked into the valley of death. And if you start walking more and more in this valley, you become freer.??
First read the question. ?
33. The reviewer’s comments on Henry Kissinger’s new book are basically ____.?
A.negative B.noncommittal C.unfounded D.positive ?
Now go through TEXT G quickly to answer question 33. ??
Whatever you think of Henry Kissinger, you have to admit: the man has staying power. With a new book—?Does America Need a Foreign Policy?? —on the shelves, Kissinger is once again helping to shape American thinking on foreign relations. This is the sixth decade in which that statement can be said to be true.?
Kissinger’s new book is terrific. Plainly intended as an extended tutorial on policy for the new American Administration, it is full of good sense and studded with occasional insights that will have readers nodding their heads in silent agreement. A particularly good chapter on Asia rebukes anyone who unthinkingly assigns China the role once played by the Soviet Union as the natural antagonist of the U.S.?
Kissinger’s book can also be read in another, and more illuminating, light. It is, in essence, an extended meditation on the end of a particular way of looking at the world: one where the principal actors in international relations are nation-states, pursuing their conception of their own national interest, and in which the basic rule of foreign policy is that one nation does not intervene in the internal affairs of another.?
Students of international relations call this the “Westphalian system,”after the 1648 Peace of Westphalia that ended Europe’s Thirty Years War, a time of indescribable carnage waged in the name of competing religions. The treaties that ended the war put domestic arrangements—like religion—off limits to other states. In the war’s aftermath a rough-rand-ready commitment to a balance of power among neighbours took shape. Kissinger is a noted shcool of the balance of power. And he is suspicious of attempts to meddle in the internal business of others.?
Yet Kissinger is far too sophisticated to attempt to recreate a world that is lost.“Today,”he writes,“te Westphalian order is in systematic crisis.”In particular, nation-states are no longer the sole drivers of the international system. In some cases, groups of states—like the European Union or Mercosur—have developed their own identities and agendas. Economic globalization has both blurred the boundaries between nations and given a substantial international role to those giant companies for whom such boundaries make little sense. In today’s world, individuals can be as influential as nations; future historians may consider the support for public health of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to be more noteworthy than last week’s United Nations conference on AIDS. And a large number of institutions are premised on the assumption that intervention in the internal affairs of others is often desirable. Were that not the case, Slobodan Milosevic would not have been surrendered last week to the jurisdiction of the war crimes tribunal in the Hague.?
The consequences of these changes are profound. Kissinger is right to note that globalization has undermined the role of the nation-state less in the case of the U.S. (Why? Because it’s more powerful than anyone else.) Elsewhere, the old ways of thinking about the “national interest”—that guiding light of the Westphalian system—have fewer adherents than they once did.??
First read the question. ?
34. In the passage the author expresses his concern about ____.?
A.the survival of small languages
B.globalization in the post-Cold War era?
C.present-day technological progress
D.ecological imblance ?
Now go through TEXT H quickly to answer question 34. ??
During the past century, due to a variety of factors, more than 1 000 of the world’s languages have disappeared, and it is possible to foresee a time, perhaps 100 years from now, when about half of today’s 6 000 languages will either be dead or dying.?
This startling rate of linguistic extinction is possible because 96 per cent of the world’s languages are now spoken only by 4 per cent of the world’s population.?
Globalization in the post-Cold War era has witnessed the coming of the information age, which has played an important role in promoting economic co-operation but which has, at the same time, helped facilitate the assimilation of smaller cultural systems into a larger, mostly English-speaking whole.?
Internet and other forms of mass media have succeeded in making English the worldwide standard.?
In 1998, the Seminar on Technological Progress & Development of the Present-day World was held in China. At the seminar, many participants expressed concern over the potential risks associated with excessive dependency on information technology. These critics claimed a move from “information monopoly” to “information hegemony” could possibly become just another way for the strong to dominate the weak, culturally as well as economically.?
In other words, life in a technology-and information-based global society may lead to a new social stratification, in which linguistic assimilation will lead to cultural assimilation and social injustice will abound.?
In the 20th century, human society’s over-development caused the deterioration of the environment and ecological imbalance. The extinction of myriad biological species aroused deep concern which led people to an understanding of the special importance of protecting rare animals and plants on the brink of extinction.?
Now we face the question, is the maintenance of cultural and linguistic diversity as important as the preservation of pandas and Chinese white-flag dolphins??
Given the open society in which we live, or wish to live, this question becomes complicated. A balance must be struck between promoting international exchanges on the one hand, and taking measures to protect “small” languages on the other hand.?
Most widely used languages, such as the six working languages—including English and Chiese—used in the United Nations, have little to fear and need no special protection.?
But for other, more marginal languages some measures should be taken. Professionals should be trained to study and use them in order to keep them alive. Effective measures such as bilingual or multilingual education should also be implemented to protect them from extinction.?
To some, 6 000 may seem like an inexhaustible number of languages. To those same people, it may seem irrelevant if one or two of those languages cease to be used.?
But what many fail to realize is that language and culture are linked. Without one, the other dies, and so with the death of different languages we have the death of different cultures. The extinction of languages is equal to animal extinction in this respect. The fading away of a language, no matter how small, causes real damage to the “ecological balance” in the field of culture.??
First read the questions. ?
35. The work of Project Manager is chiefly concerned with ____.?
A.emergency relief programmes B.agricultural rehabilitation?
C.helicopter assisted surveys D.strategic planning ?
36. The working contract is offered on a ____ basis.?
A.two-month B.twenty-monty C.ten-month D.twelve-month ?
Now go through TEXT I quickly to answer questions 35 and 36. ??
AGRICULTURAL REHABILITATION PROJECT, NORTHERN ETHIOPIA?
SCF started work in Ethiopia in 1973 with an emergency relief programme in response to the famine of that year. Since then SCF has been involved in a range of longer-term relief and development programmes to secure lasting benefits for children.?
As a result of a helicopter assisted survey undertaken in the northem highlands of Ethiopia in 2000, SCF has been involved in a number of interventions aimed at engaging with the agricultural sector in order to promote food security in the most vulnerable areas of North Wollo.?
As Project Manager your key task will be to manage, promote and develop all SCF’s activities in the agriculture / livestock and natural resources sectors in Wollo. You will also play a major role in developing policy at national level.?
To meet the challenge of this exciting new post you will need a relevant post graduate qualification; substantial experience in managing agricultural development projects in Africa with an emphasis on providing institutional support to the capacity of extension services while prompting farmer participation; ability to think and plan strategically; proven team management skills; report writing and financial skills; willingness to travel extensively and live and work in an isolated location.?
This post is offered on a twelve-month contract with a salary of ￡ 19 294(normally tax-free). You can also expect a generous benefits package including all flights and reasonable living and accommodation expenses.?
For further details and an application form please apply with CV to Jenny Thomas, Overseas Personnel Administrator, SCF, 17 Grove Lane, London SE5 8RD?
Closing date: 30th November 2001.
First read the questions. ?
37. Who have found a protein called M2??
A.Scientists from a Belgium University. B.Drug-makers in Belgium.?
C.Doctors in a Belgium hospital. D.It is not mentioned. ?
38. How many causes of bad breath does the passage cite??
A.One. B.Two. C.Three. D.Four. ?
Now go through TEXT J quickly to answer questions 37 and 38. ??
The Common Cold??
The conventional wisdom says no, but by mid-century that assessment—along with the sniffles—may well be ancient history. Colds are considered incurable today because it would take months to come up with a vaccine for every new strain. That’s fine for the flu, which breeds in animals and only jumps over to humans every year or two. But colds mutate even while they’re infecting you, and new strains pop up so often that by the time drug-makers create a vaccine against one variation, the serum is already out of date.?
The flu may yet point the way toward a cold cure though. Scientists at the University of Ghent, in Belgium, have found a protein called M2 that seems to be present in virtually every flu strain known to man. Using that knowledge, they have made a vaccine that they think could protect against all flus—old, new and those not yet in existence.?
If a similar protein is found in cold viruses—a protein that’s present no matter what strain is involved—then it is possible that by 2025 or so, children could be getting a universal cold vaccine. And then they will have to listen to us old geezers reminsice about the days when we used to carry a small white cloth called a handerchief.?
Afraid not. Bad breath isn’t an illness; it’s merely a symptom of something else. In some cases, the something else really is an illness—some kidney disorder or an infection. Infections can usually be cured, and if you’re suffering from an incurable one or from another serious condition, bad breath is the least of your problems.?
Another cause is foods like onions or garlic, in which case you’re out of luck: essential oils from such foods get into the blood, then into the lungs, then out with each exhaled breath. Even in the 21st century, if you want the flavour, you risk disflavour.?
The most common reason for bad breath, though, is, to put it delicately, food molecules rotting in the mouth. Mouthwash masks te smell, but ultimately you have to get rid of the stuff. Brushing removes larger particles, but dentists suggest brushing the back of the tongue as well, where food residues and bacteria congregate. The microscopic bits that remain must be flushed down by drink or saliva. But if you’re waiting for a true cure, it won’t happen until we eat all our food in pill form. In other words, don’t hold you breath.??
First read the questions. ?
39. When did Moore receive his first commission??
A.In 1948. B.In 1946. C.In 1931. D.In 1928. ?
40. Where did Moore win his first international prize??
A.In London. B.In Venice. C.In New York. D.In Hamburg. ?
Now go through TEXT K quickly to answer questions 39 and 40. ??
Henry Moore, the seventh of eight children of Raymond Spencer Moore and his wife Mary, was born in Yorkshire on 30 July 1898. After graduating from secondary school, Moore taught for a short while. Then the First World War began and he enlisted in the army at the age of eighteen. After the war he applied for and received an ex-serviceman’s grant to attend Leeds School of Art. At the end of his second year he won a scholarship to the Royal College of Art in London.?
In 1928 Moore met Irina Radesky, a painting student at the college, whom he married a year later. The couple then moved into a house which consisted of a small ground-floor studio with an equally small flat above. This remained their London home for ten years.?
Throughout the 1920’s Moore was involved in the art life of London. His first commission, received in 1928, was to produce a sculpture relief for the newly opened headquarters of London Transport. His first one-man exhibition opened at the Warren Gallery in 1928; it was followed by a show at the Leicester Galleries in 1931 and his first sale to a gallery abroad—the Museum fur Kunst und Gewerbe in Hamburg. His success continued.?
In 1946 Moore had his first foreign retrospective exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art, New York. In 1948 he won the International Sculpture Prize at the 24th Venice Biennale, the first of countless international accolades acquired in succeeding years. At the same time sales of Moore’s work around the world increased, as did the demand for his exhibitions. By the end of 1970’s the number of exhibitions had grown to an average of forty a year, ranging from the very small to major international retrospectives taking years years of detailed planning and preparation.?
The main themes in Moore’s work included the mother and child, the earliest work created in 1922, and the reclining figure dating from 1926. At the end of the 1960’s came stringed figures based on mathematical models observed in the Science Museum, and the first helmet head, a subject that later developed into the internal-external theme—variously interpreted as a hard form covering a soft, like a mother protecting her child or a foetus inside a womb.?
A few years before his death in 1986 Moore gave the estate at Perry Green with its studios, houses and cottages to the Trustees of the Henry Moore Foundation to promote sculpture and the fine arts within the cultural life of the country and in particular the works of Henry Moore.??
试卷二 (120 min)?
Part ⅣTranslation (60 min)
SECTION A CHINESE TO ENGLISH?
Translate the following text into English. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THREE.??
SECTION B ENGLISH TO CHINESE?
Translate the following text into Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET THERR.?
In his classic novel, “The Pioneers”, James Fenimore Cooper has his hero, a land developer, with his cousin on a tour of the city he is building. He decribes the broad streets, rows of houses, a bustling metropolis. But his cousin looks around bewildered. All she sees is a forest. “Where are the beauties and improvements which you were to show me?” she asks. He’s astonished she can’t see them. “Where! Why everywhere,” he replies. For though they are not yet built on earth, he has built them in his mind, and they are as concrete to him as if they were already constructed and finished.?
Cooper was illustrating a distinctly American trait, future-mindeness: the ability to see the present from the vantage point of the future; the freedom to feel unencumbered by the past and more emotionally attached to things to come. As Albert Einstein once said, “Life for the American is always becoming, never being.”??
Part Ⅴ Writing (60 min)
An English newspaper is currently running a discussion on whether young people in China today are (not) more self-centred and unsympathetic than were previous generations. And the paper is inviting contributions from university students. You have been asked to write a short article for the newspaper to air your views. ?
?Your article should be about 300 words in length. In the first part of your article you should state clearly your main argument, and in the second part you should support your argument with appropriate details. In the last part you should bring what you have written to a natural conclusion or a summary.?
You should supply a title for your article.?
Marks will be awarded for content, organization, grammar and appropriacy. Failure to follow the above instructions may result in a loss of marks.?
Write your composition on ANSWER SHEET FOUR.
专业八级 (2003) 答案部分
PART Ⅰ LISTENING COMPREHENSION?
SECTION A TALK?
When we talk about a modern company, we usually have managers, employees, products, research and development or marketing in mind. However, in reality, a company is not just made up of these elements. There are other things that make a company what it is. This morning, we are going to look at some other aspects of a company. Let’s first take a look at the offices. The physical surroundings of most modern companies, especially offices are becoming more and more similar. Although there are some differences from country to country, one office looks much like another. Office furniture and equipment tends to be similar, desks, chairs, filing cabinets, computers, etc. “What is important about offices?”you may ask, “What the atmosphere of the work place can often influence the effectiveness of a company’s employees?” Modern offices are more spacious and better laid, heated, ventilated and airconditioned than in the past. But of course, this is the feature that varies from firm to firm, and may be dependant on the size of the company and its cooperate philosophy. In some comanies, the employees work in large, open-plan offices without walls between the departments; in others, the staff members work more privately in individual offices. No matter what the office’s law is like, modern companies pay special attention to the physical surroundings in order to create an atmosphere conducive to higher working efficiency. Another related point when talking about offices is the work relations with other people at the place of work. They include relationships with fellow employees, workers or colleagues. A great part of work or job satisfaction, some people say the major portion, comes from getting on with others at work. Work relations were also included those between management and employees. These relations are not always straightforward, particularly as the management’s assessment of how your performing can be crucial to your future career.?
Now I’d like to say a bit more about the relations between management and employees. There will also be matters about which employees will want to talk to the management. In small businesses, the boss will probably work alongside his or her workers. Anything that needs to be sorted out will be done face to face as soon as the problem arises. There will be no formal meetings for procedures. But the larger the business, the less direct contact there will be between employees and management. Special meetings have to be held and procedures set up to say when, where, how and what circumstances the employees can talk to the management. Some companies have specially organized consultive committees for this purpose. In many countries of the world today, particularly in large firms, employees join a trade union and ask the union to represent them to the management. Through the union all categories of employees can pass on the complaints they have and try to get things changed. The process, through which unions negotiate with management on behalf of their members is called, collective bargaining. Instead of each employee trying to bargain alone with the company, the employees join together and collectively put forward their views. Occasionally a firm will refuse to recognize the right of a union to negotiate for its members, and its dispute over union recognition will arise. Whether there is an agreement, bargaining or negotiation will take place. A compromise agreement may be reached. When this is not possible, the sides can go to arbitration and bring in a third party from outside to say what they think should happen.?
However, sometimes one of the sides decides to take industrial action. The management can lock out the employees and prevent them from coming to work. This used to be quite common, but it’s rarely used today. The main courses of action open to a trade union are strike, a ban on working overtime, “working to rule”, that is when employees work according to the company rule book, “go slows”, which means that employees may spend more time doing the same job, and “picketing”, which means the employees stand outside the entrance to the business location, hoarding outside to show that they are in conflict with the management. Every country has its own tradition of industrial relations, so it’s difficult to generalize. In some businesses, unions are not welcomed by the management, but it others, the unions play an important role both in the everyday working relations of individual companies, and also in the social and political life of the country.??
SECTION B INTERVIEW?
If you are going to create a TV show that plays week after week, it needs an actor who can play a believer, you know, a person who tends to believe everything. Tonight in our show we have David Duchovney, who has starred in the popular TV series, “The X·Files”. Thanks to his brilliant performance in the TV series, David has become one of best-known figures in the country.?
Interviewer: Good evening, David, I’m so glad to have you here. ?
David: It’s my pleasure. Thank you for inviting me on the show. ?
Interviewer: David, have you often been on the radio shows? ?
David: Oh, yes, quite often. To be frank, I love to be on the show. ?
Interviewer: Why? ?
David: You know, I want to know what people think about the TV series and about me, my acting, etc. ?
Interviewer: OK, David, let’s first talk about the character you played in ‘The X·Files’. The character, whose name is Mulder is supposed to be a believer. He deals with those unbelievable, wild and often disastrous events. He must be, I mean, Mulder, someone who really believes in the things he meets in order to keep on probing into those mysteries. ?
David: That’s true. Remember those words said by Mulder: What is so hard to believe? Whose intensity makes even a most skeptical viewer believe the paranormal and our rigorous government consipiracies, without every reason to believe that life in the persistent survey is driving us out of our territorial sphere, etc., etc.? ?
Interviewer: I believe, I guess, David, your contribution to the hot series is quite aparent. Now let’s talk about your personal experience. From what I have read, I know that starting from your childhood, you were always a smart boy, went to the best private school, and were accepted at most of the Ivy League colleges. Not bad for a low middle class kid from a broken family on New York’s Lower Eastside. It’s even more surprising when you, who were on your way to a doctorate at Yale to took a few acting classes and got beaten by the book. ?
David: You bet. My mother was really surprised when I decided to give up all that in order to become an actor. ?
Interviewer: Sure. But talking about Mulder, the believer in ‘The X·Files’, what about you, David? Do you believe at all in real life, the aliens, people from outer space, you know, UFOs, government conspiracies, all the things that the TV series deal with? ?
David: Well, government conspiracies, I think, are a little far fetched. Because I mean, it’s very hard for me to keep a secret with a friend of mine. And you can tell me that the entire government is going to come together and hide the aliens from us? I find that hard to believe. In terms of aliens, I think that they are real. They must be. ?
Interviewer: So you could believe in aliens? ?
David: Oh, yeah. ?
Interviewer: The character you played in ‘The X·Files’, Fox Mulder, is so dark and moody. Are you dark and moody in life? ?
David: I think so. I think what they wanted was somebody who could be this hearted, driven person, but not behave that way and therefore be hearted and driven but also appear to be normal and not crazy at the same time. And I think that I could, I can, I can afford that. ?
Interviewer: What haunts you now? What drives you now? ?
David: What drives me is failure and success and all those things, so ... ?
Interviewer: Where are you now? Are you haunted and driven, failed or successful, which? ?
David: Yeah, both. ?
Interviewer: All of the above? ?
David: I always feel like a failure. ?
Interviewer: Do you mean now you feel like a failure? ?
David: Yeah, I mean, sometimes you know, like I come back to New York, so its like, everything is different. So I lie on bed and think, two years ago, three years ago, very different. Maybe I’m doing well, but then I think, you know there are just so many other things that I want to do and ... ?
Interviewer: Your father and mother divorced when you were eleven. Does that have effect on your life today that you recognize? ?
David: Well, yeah, I think that the only way to think of it is that, you know, people are saying ‘your wound is your goal’, you know, ‘wherever you’re hurt, that’s where you’ll become stronger.’ So, that’s what, that’s what it’s really about ...?
Interviewer: OK. It’s time for short break. We’ll be back in a minute. David Duchovney in ‘The X·Files’, don’t go away.?
SECTION C NEWS BROADCAST?
News Item 1 (For Question 11)?
The Bush administration is warning that continuing mid-east violence threatens to overwhelm US efforts to revise Israeli-Palestinian Peace talks, using the recommendations of the Mitchell commission to bring the two sides together. The administration officials are openly worried the violence and particularly the car bomb attack injured Isreali civilians could undermine what they see as a positive opening towards renewed peace talks presented by the Mitchell report. The US appeal came in the week of the bomb blast Wednesday in Israeli coastal town of Netanya that injured several Israelies. Responsibility for the bombing was claimed by the Palestinian group, Islamic Jihad. At the state department, sopkesman, Phillip Reeker said there can be no justification for terrorism and targeting its civilians, and he urged the Palestinian authority to do all they can to put an end to such incidents which is said to threaten to overtake the latest peace efforts.??
News Item 2
Voters in Peru head to the post today to cast their ballots in a run?off presidential election that many hope will mark the end of the nation’s political crisis. Opinion polls last week show the modern candidate Arhumdred Toledo with a narrow lead over a left-leaning former President Ellen Gaceya. Both candidates have campaigned on similar populous platforms. Meanwhile pre-election Service indicates that up to 25% of voters in Peru plan to spoil or leave their ballots blank to show their dissatisfaction with both candidates.??
News Item 3 (For Questions 13-15)?
Canada for the seventh consecutive year ranks the best place to live in the world. But if you are a woman, you are better off in Scandinavia since the UN Human Development Report (2000) released yesterday. Norway is in second place you know for ranking followed by the United States, Australia, Iceland, Sweden, Belgium, the Netherlands Japan and Britain. Finland is in eleventh place followed by France, Switzerland, Germany, Denmark, Austria, Luxembourg, Ireland, Italy and New Zealand. At the other end of the scale, the ten least developed countries that provide the fewest service to their people, from the bottom up, a war-devastated Sierra Leone, Niger, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Brandi, Guinean Bissau, Mozambique, Chad, Central African Republic and Mali.??
SECTION D NOTE-TAKING AND GAP-FILLING?
Good morning, everybody. Today’s lecture is about Abraham Maslov’s hierarchy of needs. This seems like a physiological topic. Actually it is something psychological. Abraham Maslov is a psychologist, and he is especially known for his theory of human needs.?
OK, first of all, what is the need? Here, we can simply define it as a personal requirement. Maslov believes that humans are wanting beings, who seek to fulfil a variety of needs. According to his theory, these needs can be arranged in an order according to their importance. It is this order that has become known as Maslov’s hierarchy of needs. In this hierarchy of needs, at the most basic level are physiological needs. Fundamentally, humans are just one species of animal. We need to keep ourselves alive. Physiological needs are what we require for survival. These needs include food and water, shelter and sleep. At this level for us humans, Maslov also includes the need for clothing. How are these needs usually satisfied? It is mainly through adequate wages.?
Then what is the next level of needs? At the next level are safety needs, the things we require for physical and emotional security. Physical security is easy to understand. Everybody needs to keep his body safe from injury, illness, etc. Then what is emotional security? Well, that may be the point in this hierarchy of needs, where humans begin to differ from other animals. We are thinking animals. We have worries, what we fear may be losing a job, or being struck down by a severe disease. Besides physical Security, we need to think we are safe from misfortunes both now and in a forseeable future. How can these needs be met then? According to Maslov, safety needs may be satisfied through job security, health insurance, pension plans and safe working conditions.?
After this stage come the levels of needs that are particular to human beings. The immediate following level are the social needs. Under this category, Maslov puts our requirements for love and affection and the sense of belonging. We need to be loved, we need to belong to a group not just the family in which we can share with others in common interest. In Maslov’s view, this need can be satisfied through the work environment and some informal organizations. Certainly, we also need social relationships beyond the work place, for example, with family and friends. Next, the level of esteem needs. What are esteem needs then? They include both the needs of self-esteem and the need of esteem of others. Self-esteem is a sense of our own achievements and worth. We need to believe that we are successful, we are no worse if no better than others. The esteem of people is the respect and recognition we gain from other people, by or through our work or our activities in other social groups. The ways to satisfy esteem needs include personal achievements, promotion to more resposible jobs, various honors and awards and other forms of recognition.?
What follows is the top level of this hierarchy of needs. These are the self-realization needs. In other words, they are the needs to grow and develop as people, the needs to become all that we are capable of being. These are the most difficult needs to satisfy. Whether one can achieve this level or not, perhaps determines whether one can be a great man or just an ordinary man. Of course, it depends on different people. The means of satisfying them tend to vary greatly with the individual. For some people, learning a new skill, starting a new career after retirement could quite well satisfy their self-realization needs. While for other people, it could be becoming the best in certain areas. It could be becoming the president of IBM, anyway, being great or ordinary is what others think, while self-realization is largely individual. Maslov suggested that people work to satisfy their physiological needs first, then their safety needs and so on up the needs ladder. In general, they are motivated by the needs at the lowest level that remain unsatisfied. However, needs at one level do not have to be completely satisfied before needs at the next higher level come into play. If the majority of a person’s physiological and safety needs are satisfied, that person will be motivated primarily by social needs. But any physiological and safety needs that remain Unsatisfied will keep playing an important role.?
OK, that’s the general picture of Maslov’s hierarchy of needs. Just to sum up, I briefly introduce to you Maslov’s theory. Maslov thinks there are five kinds of human needs with each one being more important than the preceding one. I hope that you find his ideas interesting and in our next lecture, we will mainly discuss the practical implications of his theory.?
Now, you have 2 minutes to check your notes, then please complete the 15-minute gap-filling task on Answer Sheet One. This is the end of Part One.??
PART Ⅰ LISTENING COMPREHENSION?
SECTION A TALK?
1． 答案： B?
上海快三开奖时间【详细解答】由谈话中提到的“Let’s first take a look of the offices，the physical surroundings of most modern companies，especially offices are becoming more and more similar．”可知“全球的办公室基本上是一样的”故可排除选项A；根据听到的“this is the feature that．．．，may be dependent on the size of the company”和“．．．modem companies pay special attention to the physical surrounding，in order to create an atmosphere conducive to higher working efficiency．”可知，办公环境设置与公司规模有一定联系并影响着工作人员的办公效率，可排除选项C和D。只有选项B不合题意，故为正确答案。 ?
2． 答案： A?
【详细解答】 由谈话中提到的“．．．particularly as the management’s assessment of how are you performing can be crucial to your future career．”可知，工作表现会直接影响到未来的事业，故选项A promotion(提升，晋级)为正确答案。 ?
3． 答案： D?
【详细解答】 由谈话中提到的“In small businesses，the boss will probably work along side his／her workers．Anything that needs to be sorted out will be done face to face as soon as the problem arises．”可知，在小的公司里，有问题应尽快与老板直接面谈。故选项D为正确答案。 ?
4. 答案： B?
【详细解答】 由谈话中提到的 “When this is not possible，the sides can go to arbitration and bring in a third party from outside to say what they think should happen．”可知，当工会与公司自身不能调节问题时，就会请第三者进行仲裁，所以工会不具备仲裁的职能，故选项B为正确答案。 ?
5. 答案： C?
【详细解答】 由谈话可知，其内容先后涉及工作关系（work relations）、工会角色(role of the union)和办公室设置（office layout）。故可分别排除选项A、B、D，正确答案为选项C。 ??
SECTION B INTERVIEW?
6． 答案： C ?
【详细解答】 由对话中主持人提到的“．．．took a few acting classes．．．”，可知David只是参加了几次表演班，并没有接受过专门的职业培训，故选项C的说法是错误的。 ?
7． 答案： D?
【详细解答】 在对话中，David提到“Well，government conspiracies，I think，are a little far fetched．．．”由此可知，他倾向于相信政府阴谋，故选项D为正确答案。 ?
8． 答案： C ?
【详细解答】 在谈到David对电视的贡献时，主持人说“I believe，I guess，David，your contribution to the heat series is quite ability．Now let’s talk about your personal experience．．．”，由此可知David的个人经验帮助了他的演艺事业的成功。上海快三开奖时间故选项C为正确答案。 ?
9． 答案： A?
【详细解答】 当主持人问到David的现状时，他回答“I always feel like a failure．”由此可见，他总是有一种“挫败感”，故选项A 为正确答案。 ?
10． 答案： C ?
【详细解答】 在提到父母离婚一事时，David说 “．．．whenever you are hurt，that’s where you’ll become stronger．”由此可见，他认为父母的离异促进了他的成长。故选项C为正确答案。 ?
SECTION C NEWS BROADCAST ?
News Item 1 ?
11． 答案： A ?
【详细解答】 新闻的第二句话提到“The administration officials are openly worried the violence ...，could under mine what they see as a positive opening...”，新闻中还多次提到相关人员担心巴以和平进程，故选项A为正确答案。 ??
News Item 2 ?
12． 答案： A?
【详细解答】 由新闻中提到的“...plan to spoil or leave their ballots blank to show their dissatisfaction with both candidates．”可知，有些选民对两个候选人都不满意，故选项A为正确答案。 ??
News Item 3 ?
13． 答案： D ?
【详细解答】 新闻的第二句话说“But if you are a woman，you are better off in Scandinavia since the UN Human Development(2000) released yesterday．”由此可知，选项D为正确答案。 ?
14． 答案： B?
【详细解答】 由新闻中提及的“Finland is the eleventh place followed by France...”可知，法国紧随其后，位居第十二位。答案选B。 ?
15． 答案： C ?
【详细解答】 新闻的最后一句话提到“．．．from the bottom up war-deviated，Sierra Leone．．．，”由此可知，选项C为正确答案。 ??
SECTION D NOTE-TAKING AND GAP-FILLING ?
1. 答案：basic (或 fundamental) ?
【详细解答】 在谈到Physiological needs时，录音中说“In this hierarchy of needs, at the most basic level physiological needs”，由此可知，此处应填写basic 或 fundamental。 ?
【详细解答】 当录音中说到“Then what is the next level of needs?”我们就应集中注意力听下文，“ At the next level are safety needs，．．．”由此可知，此处应填写safety。 ?
【详细解答】 紧接上题，录音解释了safety needs所包含的内容“．．．the things we require for physical and emotional security.” ?
【详细解答】 根据录音中提到的“We have worries, what we find may lost my job, what we find ．．．”，此处应填写worries。 ?
5. 答案：pension ?
【详细解答】 在谈到解决safety needs的方法时，录音中说到“．．．safety needs may be satisfied through job security, health insurance, pension plan and safe working conditions.” 故此处应填写pension。 ?
【详细解答】 在谈到esteem needs时，录音中说“The esteem of others is the respect and recognition we gain from other people, by or through our work or our achievements and worth.” 故此处应填写work。 ?
【详细解答】 在谈到self-realization needs时，录音中说“The means of satisfying them tend to vary greatly with the individual.” 故此处应填写variable。 ?
详细解答:由上下文可知，social，esteem and self-realization needs 应该是 human needs。 ?
【详细解答】 根据录音中提到的“In general, they are motivated by the needs at the lowest level that remain unsatisfied ．．．”，此处应填写motivation。 ?
【详细解答】 根据录音中提到的“But any physiological and safety needs that remain unsatisfied will keep playing an important role．”，此处应填写coexist。 ??
PART Ⅱ PROOFREADING AND ERROR CORRECTION?
1. 答案： height→high?
【详细解答】 height为不可数名词，意为“高度，身高，海拔，顶点”等，故此处应改为可数名词high。 ?
【详细解答】 此处steady decline指稳定下降的行为、过程而不是其结果，为不可数名词，故应去掉定冠词a。 ?
【详细解答】 go on为固定搭配，意为“持续”。 ?
【详细解答】 根据上下文，此处应为比较级。 ?
5． 答案：Europe→European ?
【详细解答】 根据上下文，此处应用形容词作定语修饰名词counterparts。 ?
6． 答案： more?
【详细解答】 由上下文可知，more与equally矛盾，故应去掉。 ?
【详细解答】 由上下文可知，此处讲的内容与前部分内容之间为递进关系，而非转折关系。 ?
8． 答案： that→those?
【详细解答】 由上下文可知，此处所指代的应为前面复数形式的marriages，故指示代词也应该用复数形式。 ?
9． 答案： Since→Although（或While）?
【详细解答】 从逻辑上讲，此处应表达让步关系，而非因果关系。 ?
【详细解答】 to．．．extent为固定搭配，意为“到……程度”。 ??
PART Ⅲ READING COMPREHENSION?
SECTION A ?
16． 答案：D ?
【详细解答】 短文第一段中有这么一句话：“...，only really unifying in the face of enmity from non-Gypsies，...”即“只有面对非吉卜赛人的威胁时才联合起来”，由此可知选项D为正确答案。 ?
【详细解答】 短文第二段中有这么两句话“In Europe their persecution by gadje began quickly，with the church seeing heresy in their fortune-telling and the state seeing anti-social behaviour in their nomadism．”即“在欧洲gadje人对他们的迫害迅速开始，教堂认为他们的算命是异教行为，政府认为他们的游牧生活是反社会行为”。 “In more recent times the Gypsies were caught up in Nazi ethnic hysteria，and perhaps half a million perished in the holocaust．”即“在更近期的历史中，吉卜赛人被卷入了纳粹党的歇斯底里的种族迫害中，大约有50万人死于这次大屠杀”。由此可知选项B、C、D都对吉卜赛人造成了迫害。所以答案应选A。 ?
【详细解答】 短文最后一句说“with very few exceptions Gypsies have expressed no great desire for a country to call their own--unlike the Jews，...”即“绝大部分吉卜赛人对建立一个自己民族的国家没有多大欲望，不像犹太人那样”，由此可知，他们的主要区别在于他们对他们的身份所持的不同观点上，所以答案应为C。文中未将吉卜赛人与犹太人的语言、文化或习俗进行比较，故A、B、D项都不符合题意。 ??
TEXT B ?
19. 答案：B ?
【详细解答】 文章第一段讲述了作者还是个小男孩时去哈莱姆市的情景。当时住在Theresa旅店，它是一幢雄伟的砖头建筑。在旅店餐馆里，父亲指出乔·路易斯(一位美国职业拳击运动员)。在第二段开头，作者指出Much has changed since then．接着说，Business and real estate are booming．(商业和房地产繁荣起来。)由此可见，作者在开头想指出哈莱姆市经历了剧烈的变化，故选项B为正确答案。 ?
20. 答案：D ?
【详细解答】 由短文的第四、五段“I miss Mr．Michaux’s bookstore．．．，I miss speaker like Carlos Cooks．．．”，可以推断出作者是很怀念过去的时光的，故选项D为正确答案。 ?
【详细解答】 短文第六段开头说“．．．in the l920s and ’30s，when Harlem renaissance artists，writers，and intellectuals gave it a glitter and renown that made it capital of black America．”即“在20世纪20、30年代Harlem新兴的艺术家、作家和知识分子给Harlem带来了光明和名望，使得其成为美国黑人的首都”，由此可知，在20世纪20、30年代Harlem被称为首都主要是因为它的艺术和文化，所以答案应为A。 ?
【详细解答】 文章说作者首次来到Harlem大约在20世纪40、50年代，而那时由于20、30年代艺术和文化的发展，Harlem成为美国黑人的首都，但随着经济的发展和商业的繁荣，美国正经历另一次的rebirth，尽管随之而来的也有一些社会问题，如毒品和犯罪等。第八段还另外提到：“Now，you want to shout‘Lookin’good!’at this place that has been neglected for so long，”所以作者对Harlem的变化大体上是持肯定态度的。 ??
TEXT C ?
23． 答案：B ?
【详细解答】 短文第一段提到了公司招聘的要求。由“He was married，and that was mandatory．”可知A项marriage在要求之内。由“He had a degree in accounting，passed the CPA exam the first time he took it and wanted to be a tax lawyer，which of course was a requirement with a tax firm．”可知C项relevant degree也在要求之内。由“McDeere was a male，and there were no women in the firm．”可知D项male也是正确选项，所以只有B不符合题意。 ?
【详细解答】 根据文章第三段的描述，该公司派人调查了McDeere在校的表现甚至是一些琐碎的私人生活细节，可以推断出该公司对McDeere的任何个人细节都感兴趣。 ?
【参考译文】 根据文章内容，Lama Quin在面试现场的主要原因是什么？?
【详细解答】 根据文中第五段中的“Lamar Quin was thirty-two and not yet a partner．He had been brought along to look young and act young and project a youthful image for Bendini，Lambert & Locke which in fact was a young firm．．．”可知Lamar Quin出现在此次面试中的主要原因应为A项，即“他的形象可以给McDeere留下印象”。 ?
【详细解答】 根据文中第一段及第二段中的内容可知该公司在招聘人员时是精挑细选的(selective)。该公司还派私人侦探去调查McDeere的个人情况，可知他们的招聘是秘密的(secretive)。该公司在工作招聘中对应聘人员的要求是有种族偏见的(racially biased)，这由第一段中“He was white，and the firm had never hired a black．”可得出结论。所以只有C项perfunctory(敷衍了事，马马虎虎)不合题意。 ??
TEXT D ?
【详细解答】 A项是视总统为CEO，这与原文第四段中“But even the president is not really the CEO．”是不符的；B项也不合题意，因为“Power in Washington is diffuse and horizontally spread out．”(政府权力是分散的，是水平分布的。)所以他对其负责部门不必绝对控制，而是要扮演好总统顾问(adviser to President)的角色；C项在文中并未提及。故正确答案为D。 ?
【详细解答】 短文第六段以O’Neill当财政部长为例，论述了必须小心行使权力。接着在第七段指出O’Neill公开批评国际货币基金组织给予发展中国家紧急援助的建议，与此同时却赞同针对土尔其、阿根廷和巴西的这类建议，结果两边都不讨好。可见，O’Neill没有行使好自己的权力。故选项A为正确答案。 ?
【详细解答】 短文倒数第二段第二句说“Business functions around one predominate organizing principle，profitability．．．Government，on the other hand，deals with a vast number of equally legitimate and often potentially competing objectives．．．”可以看出两者的行为性质是不同的，所以A项是区别之一。短文倒数第三段第二句说“．．．you can’t just quit．Jack Welch’s famous law for re-engineering General Electric was to be first or second in any given product category，or else get out of that business．But if the government isn’t doing a particular job at peak level，it doesn’t always have the option of relieving itself of that function．”可以看出商业部门有其自由撤出的权力而政府部门一般不可，所以B项也是区别之一。此外两者权力分布也是不同的，正如文中第四段所述“Power in a corporation is concentrated and vertically structured．Power in Washington is diffuse and horizontally spread out．”由此看来只有C项不是两者的区别，故为正确答案。 ?
【详细解答】 在短文的最后一段，作者指出，CEO长期习染崇拜、奉承的文化，因而他们很难相信自己有必要去听取别人的意见或学习他人的优点，特别是那些为人们所不齿的政客、官僚和媒体，而他们即使清楚地认识有这个必要，也不会那样做，故选B。 ??
SECTION B ?
TEXT E ?
【详细解答】 从文中大量有关美国网吧的数字，就可判断本文主要是关于美国网吧的。 ??
TEXT F ?
【详细解答】 快速浏览全文可知，第一段第一句话直接道出西方练瑜珈的人只注重形体修塑，没注意意识修炼。第二段的开头介绍了瑜珈功的正确、本来的原理，指出瑜珈功重在内心修炼。第三段指出瑜珈由外部瑜珈与内部瑜珈组成，并详细介绍了内部瑜珈的境界感受，这是为了体现内心修炼的重要性，从而批评了西方练瑜珈的人的不当之处，故选项A为正确答案。 ??
TEXT G ?
短文大意 ：这是一篇有关基辛格的新书Does American Need a Foreign Policy的书评。?
【详细解答】 根据短文第2段和第3段的第1句、第6段的第2句可知，作者对基辛格的新书还是持赞扬态度，故正确答案为D。 ??
TEXT H ?
【详细解答】 由文章第一段可知，小语种在逐渐消失。接着浏览各段开头或文中词语可知，文章主要围绕language，linguistic extinction进行论述。而且从文中倒数第六段和倒数第三段可知，文中还谈及了如何挽救小语种。故本题选A项。 ??
TEXT I ?
【详细解答】 从招聘启事的副标题AGRICULTURAL REHABILITATION PROJECT可知正确答案为选项B。 ?
【详细解答】 由短文倒数第三段中的“a twelve-month contract with a salary”可知正确选项为D。 ??
TEXT J ?
【详细解答】 在文中迅速找寻M2一词。从第二段第二句可得出 是比利时的一所大学里的科学家发现了M2，故正确答案为选项A。 ?
【详细解答】 在标题为BAD BREATH的三段文字中，分别给出了导致口气不清新的三个原因：an illnes，foods like onions or garlic，food molecules，故正确答案为选项C。 ??
TEXT K ?
【详细解答】 在文中寻找first commission。从第三段第二句可知His first commission，received in l928...，故正确答案为选项D。 ?
【详细解答】 在文中寻找international prize。从第四段第二句可知“...won the International Sculpture Prize at the 24th Venice Biennale，the first of countless international accolades...，由此可知，正确答案为选项B。 ??
PAPER TWO ?
PART Ⅳ TRANSLATION?
SECTION A CHINESE TO ENGLISH?
Before I fell ill, my parents doted on me a lot. I could have my way at home. Once I was isolated and confined in a chamber on the hillside of the garden, I suddenly felt I was neglected and became very depressed. One spring evening, my parents held a Banquet in the garden, where all sorts of flowers were in full bloom. In no time, a crowd of their guests collected and laughter was heard all over there. I, without being noticed, lifted the curtain in my small room, only to spy the bustle of a kaleidoscopic world down in the garden, and my elder sisters, brothers and my cousins, each full of the joys of spring, were shuttling among the guests. Quickly enough, I was thrown into a fist of sorrowful anger at being forgotten and discarded by the rest and could not help crying my heart out.??
SECTION B ENGLISH TO CHINESE?
PART Ⅴ WRITING?
Love, and Then Be Loved
In recent years, more and more teachers complain that their students are indifferent to others. Some even worry that the young generation might ruin the future of China. To be sure, many of our young people cannot see eye to eye with this view. However, as a university student, I myself would like to content that we young people today are in general more self-centered and unsympathetic than our previous generations.?
To start with, most, if not all, young people choose to attend exclusively to their own needs. In their eyes, It is all too natural to seek satisfaction from what they do, even if it may mean inconvenience to others. Take my dormitory for example. It is a common scene here that a roommate cheerfully talks to his girlfriend on the phone at midnight when others are struggling for a sound sleep. One may complain now and then, but to no avail. In fact, the others, to the exclusion of me, live their dormitory life much in the same way. When I take a nap at noon, they often play cards. They have no regard for others. Life is a joy to them, yet they often enjoy it to the neglect of others’ feelings. In sharp contrast, our caring parents always pay heed to our needs and those of others. Whenever my father comes back home late in the night, he tiptoes In for fear that he might awake me.?
Moreover, our young people tend to be insensitive to others’ difficulty. When a classmate falls ill, few people offer to help, but regard it as none of their business. Some students in my class come from poor families. Yet, they are active mobile phone users, who may spend twice as much as what their parents earn from arduous labor. When asked why they behave so, they answer that their parents have the obligation to accommodate their expenses. Personally, I detest their answer, for I know my parents never thought that way when they were young. Being aware of their parents’ financial difficulty, they managed to save every penny they could.?
For the above reasons and those not mentioned here, I subscribe to the view that young people in today’s China are more self-centered and unsympathetic than were our previous generations. It is high time that we learned from older generations so that a harmonious and splendid future can be anticipated.??
fragmented and fractious分裂而且难以驾驭的?
downplay their profile贬低他们的形象或影响?
run／ride roughshod over 残暴地(或盛气凌人地)对待，对……横行霸道?
at peak level处于最好的水平